Lyme Co-Infections


The most common piroplasm infecting humans, but they have identified over twenty piroplasms carried by ticks. In addition to transmission by a tick, babesia can be transmitted from mother to unborn child or through a contaminated blood transfusion.


Similar to those of Lyme disease but babesiosis more often starts with a high fever and chills. As the infection progresses, patients may develop fatigue, headache, drenching sweats, muscle aches, chest pain, hip pain, and shortness of breath (“air hunger”).


Bacteria which live primarily inside the lining of the blood vessels. They can infect humans, mammals, and a wide range of wild animals. It is mainly carried by cats and causes cat-scratch disease, endocarditis, and several other serious diseases in humans.


Include fever, fatigue, headache, poor appetite, and an unusual streaked rash that resembles “stretch marks” from pregnancy. Swollen glands are typical, especially around the head, neck, and arms.

Neurological symptoms include blurred vision, numbness in the extremities, memory loss, balance problems, headaches, ataxia, unsteady gait, and tremors. Bartonellosis also sometimes triggers psychiatric manifestations.


Also known as Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by a spirochete, a type of bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi, passed by a tick bite. Because of the corkscrew-like shape of the spirochete, Lyme bacteria can invade many systems in the body. It will affect patients differently depending on where the bacteria have migrated.


Lyme disease symptoms vary greatly, but skin disorders, arthritis, and neurological symptoms may be present. Examples include a reddish skin rash, headaches, neck pain, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, joint pain, emotional instability, and mental confusion.


Brucellosis is a severe acute febrile disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Portals of entry are the mouth, conjunctivae, respiratory tract, and abraded skin. Brucella is also passed from handling infected animals or consuming contaminated milk products.


At the onset, it can mimic influenza with fever reaching 38 to 40°C. Other symptoms include limb and back pain, sweating and fatigue, and anemia.


A fungus that aids with nutrient absorption and digestion when in proper levels in the body. When it overproduces, the typical Candida symptoms may appear. The digestive tract, left unchecked, breaks down the intestinal lining walls and penetrates the bloodstream. This releases by-product toxins and other toxins from your system, causing leaky gut.


Include brain fog, exhaustion, allergies and sinus problems, UTIs, joint pain, and hormone imbalances.


Bacteria infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia. Person-to-person transmission occurs through respiratory secretions.


Include pneumonia or bronchitis, gradual onset of cough with low-grade fever. The spectrum of illness can range from asymptomatic infection to severe disease.

Clostridium dificile C.

An infection that can range from mild to life-threatening. As the bacteria are overgrown, they release toxins that attack theintestines’ linings, causing a condition called Clostridium Dificilecolitis.


Include watery diarrhea, three or more times a day for several days, with abdominal pain or tenderness.


Hand, foot, & mouth disease is a member of a family of viruses called enteroviruses. There are two different types of coxsackieviruses, A and B. Type A viruses cause herpangina (sores in the throat) and hand, foot, and mouth disease. Type B viruses cause epidemic pleurodynia and inflammation in the chest.

Both types can cause meningitis (inflammation of the spinal cord or brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and pericarditis (inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart). They also may have a role in the development of acute onset juvenile diabetes.


Include fever, poor appetite, runny nose, and sore throat can appear three to five days after exposure. A blister-like rash on the hands, feet, and mouth usually develops one to two days after the initial symptoms.


Human papillomaviruses are members of the Papovaviridae family of epitheliotropic double-stranded DNA viruses. They are considered tumor viruses because of their ability to immortalize normal cells. Currently, more than 130 types of HPV have been identified, with more than 40 types infectious for the lower genital tract.

These are generally characterized as “low-risk” types. They are primarily associated with genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis. “High-risk” types are associated with low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL) and invasive cancer.


Most patients with anal condylomata present with minor complaints. The most frequent complaint is that of perianal growth. Pruritus ani may be present, and to a lesser degree, discharge, bleeding, odor, tenesmus, and difficult perianal hygiene may be noted.


The species that infects humans is commonly known as human CMV. It is related to other herpes viruses. All herpes viruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Although they may be found throughout the body, CMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands in humans and other mammals. [5]


Include enlarged lymph nodes, especially in the neck, fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, malaise, muscle aches, rash, or sore throat.


Parasites multiply inside host cells, forming large mulberry-shaped clusters called morulae that doctors can sometimes see on blood smears. The infection still can easily be missed. The doctor may suspect ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in a patient who does not respond well to Lyme disease treatment.


Flu-like signs and symptoms may appear, usually within seven to 14 days of the bite, and include mild fever, headache, chills, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, loss of appetite, joint pain, confusion, rash, and cough.

Epstein Barr Virus

Nicknamed “mono,” it’s also called the “kissing disease” because of one way you can spread it to someone else. Even though Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) isn’t a household name, you’ve probably been infected without knowing it. Lots of people carry the virus but don’t get sick.


Once you’re infected with EBV, symptoms can take 4 to 6 weeks to show up. Symptoms include fatigue, fever, lack of appetite, rash, sore throat, weakness, sore muscles, and swollen glands in the neck.

Giardia Lamblia

An intestinal infection marked by abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, and bouts of watery diarrhea. A microscopic parasite causes giardia infection found worldwide, especially in areas with poor sanitation and unsafe water. Giardia infection (giardiasis) is one of the most common causes of waterborne disease in the United States.

The parasites are found in backcountry streams and lakes and municipal water supplies, swimming pools, whirlpool spas, and wells. Giardia infection can be transmitted through food and person-to-person contact.


Include watery, sometimes foul-smelling diarrhea that may alternate with soft, greasy stools, fatigue or malaise, abdominal cramps and bloating, gas or flatulence, nausea, and weight loss.

H. Pylori

This type of bacteria can enter your body and live in your digestive tract. After H. pylori enter your body, it attacks your stomach’s lining, which usually protects you from the acid your body uses to digest food. Once the bacteria have done enough damage, acid can get through the lining, which leads to ulcers. These may bleed, cause infections, or keep food from moving through your digestive tract.


It may feel like a dull or burning pain in your belly. It may come and go, but you’ll probably feel it most when your stomach is empty, such as between meals or in the middle of the night. It can last for a few minutes or hours. You may feel better after you eat, drink milk, or take an antacid.

Herpes Simplex

Categorized into two types, 1, oral herpes, and 2, genital herpes. Most commonly, herpes type 1 causes sores around the mouth and lips, sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores. Type 1 can cause genital herpes, but most genital herpes is caused by herpes type 2.

In type 2, the infected person may have sores around the genitals or rectum. Herpes simplex type 1, transmitted through oral secretions or sores on the skin, can be spread through kissing or sharing objects such as toothbrushes or eating utensils.

In general, a person can only get a herpes type 2 infection during sexual contact with someone who has a genital herpes infection. It is important to know that both types can be spread even if sores are not present.


Do not affect everyone; however, when it causes symptoms, it can be described as extremely painful. This is especially true for the first outbreak, which is often the worst. Outbreaks are described as aches or pains in or around the genital area or burning, pain, or difficulty urinating. Some people experience discharge from the vagina or penis. Oral herpes lesions (cold sores) usually cause tingling and burning just before the blisters’ breakout.

Herpes Zoster

Commonly known as shingles, is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. Anyone who’s had chickenpox may develop shingles. After you recover from chickenpox, the virus can enter your nervous system and lie dormant for years.

Eventually, it may reactivate and travel along nerve pathways to your skin, producing shingles. Shingles are more common in older adults and those with weak immune systems. A person with shingles can pass the virus to anyone who isn’t immune to chickenpox.

This usually occurs through direct contact with the open sores of the shingles rash. Once infected, the person will develop chickenpox, however, not shingles.


Usually, it can affect only a small section of one side of your body. These signs and symptoms may include pain, burning, numbness or tingling, sensitivity to touch, a red rash that begins a few days after the pain, fluid-filled blisters that break open, crust over, and itch. Some people also experience fever, headache, sensitivity to light, and fatigue.

Human Parvo Virus

Common and highly contagious childhood infection is sometimes called “slapped cheek disease” because of the distinctive face rash that develops. In some adults, the infection can be serious. Parvovirus infection in pregnancy can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. Parvovirus infection is also more serious for people with some kinds of anemia or a compromised immune system.


Early signs and symptoms of parvovirus infection in children may include fever, upset stomach, headache, and runny nose. Several days after the appearance of early symptoms, a distinctive bright red facial rash may appear, usually on both cheeks. Eventually, it may extend to the arms, trunk, thighs, and buttocks.

Adults don’t usually develop the slapped-cheek rash. Instead, the most prominent parvovirus infection symptom in adults is joint soreness, lasting days to weeks. The joints most commonly affected are the hands, wrists, knees, and ankles.


An infection that causes respiratory illness. Mycoplasma is spread through contact with droplets from infected people’s noses and throat, especially when they cough and sneeze. Transmission is thought to require prolonged close contact with an infected person. Spread in families, schools, and institutions occur slowly.


Usually appear two to three weeks after exposure and include fever, cough, bronchitis, sore throat, headache, and tiredness. A common result of mycoplasma infection is pneumonia. Sometimes, it’s called “walking pneumonia” because it is usually mild and rarely requires hospitalization. Infections of the middle ear (otitis media) also can result. Symptoms may persist for a few days to more than a month.


Incredibly tiny bacterium-called Nanobacter appear to cause or worsen a variety of ailments, including heart disease. These tiny bacteria, seen only with powerful electron microscopes, “ooze” a protective shell of calcium, coating themselves just like the sugar glaze on a donut. When enough Nanobacter is present, specks of calcification appear and grow, hardening arteries, creating kidney stones, cataracts, and gum disease.


Include abnormal calcium deposits in breasts, dental plaque, kidney stones, specks of calcification that appear and grow, harden arteries, create kidney stones, cataracts, and gum disease.

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

A bacterial infection transmitted by a tick. Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause serious damage to internal organs without prompt treatment, such as your kidneys and heart.


Although many people become ill within the first week after infection, symptoms may not appear for up to 14 days. Often, a red, non-itchy rash appears a few days after the initial signs and symptoms begin.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever symptoms are often nonspecific and can mimic those of other illnesses such as high fever, chills, severe headache, muscle aches, nausea and vomiting, restlessness, and insomnia.


There are several species of Streptococcus. The cause of strep throat is bacteria known as group A streptococcus. This bacteria is highly contagious.

They can spread through airborne droplets when someone with the infection coughs or sneezes or through shared food or drinks. You can also pick up the bacteria from a doorknob or other surface and transfer them to your nose, mouth, or eyes.


Throat pain that usually comes on quickly, painful swallowing, red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus, tiny red spots on the area at the back of the roof of the mouth (soft or hard palate), swollen, tender lymph nodes in your neck, fever, headache, nausea or vomiting, especially in younger children, body aches.

Toxoplasma Gondi

Toxoplasma Gondi (T. Gondi) is a single-celled parasitic organism that can infect most animals and birds. Because it reproduces only in cats, wild and domestic felines are the parasite’s ultimate host. However, it can be passed through contact with cat feces, unwashed fruit, vegetables, or contaminated water.

When a person becomes infected with T. Gondi, the parasite forms cysts that can affect almost any part of the body, often your brain and muscles, including the heart. If you’re generally healthy, your immune system keeps the parasites in check.

They remain in your body in an inactive state, providing you with lifelong immunity so that you can’t become infected with the parasite again. If your resistance is weakened by disease or medications, the infection can be reactivated, leading to serious complications.


If you’re healthy, you probably won’t know you’ve contracted toxoplasmosis. Some people, however, develop signs and symptoms similar to those of the flu if you have a weakened immune system and may experience headache, confusion, poor coordination, seizures, lung problems that resemble tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, or blurred vision caused by severe inflammation of your retina.